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Standards of Learning

The following represent the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that readily be applied towards learning and teaching about the countries and cultures of South Asia and East Asia in Social Studies, English, Modern Foreign Languages, and Fine Arts:

Social Studies

Second Grade

2.1 The student will explain how the contributions of ancient China and Egypt have influenced the present world in terms of architecture, inventions, the calendar, and written language.

2.4 The student will develop map skills by a) locating the United States, China, and Egypt on world maps; b) understanding the relationship between the environment and the culture of ancient China and Egypt.

2.5 The student will develop map skills by a) locating the equator, the seven continents, and the five oceans on maps and globes; b) locating selected rivers (James River, Mississippi River, Rio Grande, Huang He, and Nile River), mountain ranges…and lakes…in the United States and other countries.

2.8 The student will distinguish between the use of barter and the use of money in the exchange for goods and services.

2.9 The student will explain that scarcity (limited resources) requires people to make choices about producing and consuming goods and services.

Third Grade

3.12 The student will recognize that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions

United States History: 1865 to the Present

USII.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World War II by a) identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor; b) locating and describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific;

USII.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world between the end of World War II and the present by a) describing the rebuilding of Europe and Japan after World War II, the emergence of the United States as a superpower, and the establishment of the United Nations; c) identifying the role of America’s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War, including the wars in Korea and Vietnam; e) describing how international trade and globalization have impacted American life.

USII.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the key domestic and international issues during the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries by d) examining American foreign policy, immigration, the global environment, and other emerging issues;

Civics and Economics

CE.1 The student will develop the social studies skills responsible citizenship requires, including the ability to a) create and explain maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets; c) analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media

CE.11 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how economic decisions are made in the marketplace by a) applying the concepts of scarcity, resources, choice, opportunity cost, price, incentives, supply and demand, production, and consumption; b) comparing the differences among traditional, free market, command, and mixed economies;

CE.14 The student will demonstrate knowledge of personal finance and career opportunities by d) examining the impact of technological change and globalization on career opportunities;

World Geography

WG.8 The student will distinguish between developed and developing countries and relate the level of economic development to the standard of living and quality of life;

WG.9 The student will analyze the global patterns and networks of economic interdependence;

WG.10 The student will analyze how the forces of conflict and cooperation affect the division and control of the Earth’s surface;

WG.12 The student will apply geography to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future;

Virginia and United States History

VUS.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs by a) explaining the changing policies of the United States toward Latin America and Asia and the growing influence of the United States in foreign markets;

VUS.11 The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by a) analyzing the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including military assistance to the United Kingdom and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; c) describing the role of all-minority military units, including the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments;

VUS.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II;

VUS.15 The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, cultural, and political developments in recent decades and today by f) assessing the role of the United States in a world confronted by international terrorism.

Virginia and United States Government

GOVT.12 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by a) describing the responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security; b) assessing the role played by national interest in shaping foreign policy and promoting world peace; c) examining the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy; d) examining recent foreign policy and international trade initiatives since 1980;

GOVT.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how governments and economies in Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the People’s Republic of China compare with the government and the economy in the United States;

GOVT.14 The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic systems;

GOVT.15 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the United States market economy by f) analyzing global economic trends and the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy.

World History and Geography I

WHI.1 The student will improve skills in historical research and geographical analysis by a) identifying, analyzing, and interpreting primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history to 1500 A.D.; b) using maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and interpret the past to 1500 A.D.; c) identifying major geographic features important to the study of world history to 1500 A.D.; d) identifying and comparing political boundaries with the locations of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms from 4000 B.C. to 1500 A.D.; e) analyzing trends in human migration and cultural interaction from prehistory to 1500 A.D.; f) analyzing the impact of economic forces, including taxation, government spending, trade, resources, and monetary systems, on events to 1500 A.D.

WHI.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient river valley civilizations, including those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and China and the civilizations of the Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Nubians by a) locating these civilizations in time and place; b) describing the development of social, political, and economic patterns, including slavery; c) explaining the development of religious traditions; e) explaining the development of language and writing

WHI.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the civilizations of Persia, India, and China in terms of chronology, geography, social structures, government, economy, religion, and contributions to later civilizations by b) describing India, with emphasis on the Aryan migrations and the caste system; c) describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Hinduism; d) describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Buddhism; e) describing China, with emphasis on the development of an empire and the construction of the Great Wall; f) describing the impact of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism

WHI.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of Islamic civilization from about 600 to 1000 A.D. by a) describing the origin, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Islam; b) assessing the influence of geography on Islamic economic, social, and political development, including the impact of conquest and trade; c) identifying historical turning points that affected the spread and influence of Islamic civilization, with emphasis on the Sunni-Shi’a division and the Battle of Tours; d) citing cultural and scientific contributions and achievements of Islamic civilization.

WHI.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of civilizations and empires of the Eastern hemisphere and their interactions through regional trade patterns by a) locating major trade routes; b) identifying technological advances and transfers, networks of economic interdependence, and cultural interactions; c) describing Japan, with emphasis on the impact of Shinto and Buddhist traditions and the influence of Chinese culture

World History and Geography II

WHII.1 The student will improve skills in historical research and geographical analysis by a) identifying, analyzing, and interpreting primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history since 1500 A.D.; b) using maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and interpret the past since 1500 A.D.; c) identifying major geographic features important to the study of world history since 1500 A.D.; d) identifying and comparing political boundaries with the locations of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms from 1500 A.D. to the present; e) analyzing trends in human migration and cultural interaction from 1500 A.D. to the present; f) analyzing the impact of economic forces, including taxation, government spending, trade, resources, and monetary systems, on events since 1500 A.D.

WHII.2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the political, cultural, geographic, and economic conditions in the world about 1500 A.D. by a) locating major states and empires; c) describing the distribution of major religions; d) analyzing major trade patterns; e) citing major technological and scientific exchanges in the Eastern hemisphere

WHII.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the impact of the European Age of Discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia by a) explaining the roles and economic motivations of explorers and conquistadors; b) describing the influence of religion; c) explaining migration, settlement patterns, cultural diffusion, and social classes in the colonized areas

WHII.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the status and impact of global trade on regional civilizations of the world after 1500 A.D. by b) describing India, including the Mughal Empire and coastal trade; c) describing East Asia, including China and the Japanese shogunate

WHII.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century by a) citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes; e) assessing the impact of European economic and military power on Asia and Africa, with emphasis on the competition for resources and the responses of colonized peoples.

WHII.11 The student will demonstrate knowledge of political, economic, social, and cultural developments during the Interwar Period by a) describing the League of Nations and the mandate system; b) citing causes and assessing the impact of worldwide depression in the 1930s; c) examining events related to the rise, aggression, and human costs of dictatorial regimes in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan, and identifying their major leaders, i.e., Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hirohito, and Hideki Tojo

WHII.12 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the worldwide impact of World War II by a) explaining economic and political causes, describing major events, and identifying leaders of the war, with emphasis on Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George Marshall, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Hideki Tojo, and Hirohito; c) explaining the terms of the peace, the war crimes trials, the division of Europe, plans to rebuild Germany and Japan, and the creation of international cooperative organizations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

WHII.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of major events in the second half of the twentieth century by b) assessing the impact of nuclear weaponry on patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945; c) describing conflicts and revolutionary movements in eastern Asia, including those in China and Vietnam, and their major leaders, i.e., Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), Chiang Kai-shek, and Ho Chi Minh; d) describing major contributions of selected world leaders in the second half of the twentieth century, including Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Deng Xiaoping

WHII.14 The student will demonstrate knowledge of political economic, social, and cultural aspects of independence movements and development efforts by a) describing the struggles for self-rule, including Gandhi’s leadership in India and the development of India’s democracy;

WHII.15 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the influence of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism in the contemporary world by a) describing their beliefs, sacred writings, traditions, and customs; b) locating the geographic distribution of religions in the contemporary world

WHII.16 The student will demonstrate knowledge of cultural, economic, and social conditions in developed and developing nations of the contemporary world by a) identifying contemporary political issues, with emphasis on migrations of refugees and others, ethnic/religious conflicts, and the impact of technology, including chemical and biological technologies; b) assessing the impact of economic development and global population growth on the environment and society, including an understanding of the links between economic and political freedom; c) describing economic interdependence, including the rise of multinational corporations, international organizations, and trade agreements; d) analyzing the increasing impact of terrorism

English

Eighth Grade

8.3 The student will analyze mass media messages b) describe the possible cause-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends. c)  evaluate sources, including advertisements, editorials, and feature stories, for relationships between intent and factual content.

Ninth Grade

9.1 The student will plan, present, and critique dramatic readings of literary selections a) choose a literary form for presentation, such as a poem, monologue, scene from a play, or story b) adapt presentation techniques to fit literary form c) use verbal and nonverbal techniques for presentation d) evaluate impact of presentation

9.3 The student will read and analyze a variety of literature g) explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and point of view of a written work

Tenth Grade

10.3 The student will read, comprehend, and critique literary works d) explain similarities and differences of techniques and literary forms represented in the literature of different cultures and eras e) identify universal themes prevalent in the literature of different cultures.

Twelfth Grade

12.3 The student will read and analyze the development of British literature and literature of other cultures a) recognize major literary forms and their elements b) recognize the characteristics of major chronological areas c) relate literary works and authors to major themes and issues of their eras

12.5 The student will read and critique a variety of poetry d) compare and contrast traditional and contemporary works of poets from many cultures

12.6 The student will read and critique dramatic selections from a variety of authors d) compare and contrast dramatic elements of plays from American, British, and other cultures

Modern Foreign Language

MFLI.6 The student will present rehearsed material in the target language, including brief narratives, monologues, dialogues, poetry, and/or songs.1. Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal techniques, such as voice inflection, gestures, and facial expressions. 2. Communicate ideas in an organized manner, using appropriate visual and/or technological support.

MFLI.7 The student will develop an awareness of perspectives, practices, and products of the cultures where the target language is spoken. 1. Identify some viewpoints of the cultures, such as those relating to time, education, transportation, and the roles of family members. 2. Identify some customs and traditions of the cultures, such as greetings, celebrations, holiday practices, and forms of address that demonstrate politeness. 3. Identify some important historical and contemporary individuals associated with significant events from the cultures. 4. Identify some products of the cultures, such as natural and manufactured items, creative and fine arts, forms of recreation and pastimes, dwellings, language, and symbols.

MFLI.8 The student will recognize that perspectives, practices, and products of the cultures studied are interrelated. 1. Recognize that the viewpoints, customs and traditions, and products of speakers of the target language shape their cultures. 2. Identify major cities and geographical features in countries where the target language is spoken and the reasons they are significant in the cultures of those countries.

MFLI.9 The student will connect information about the target language and culture(s) with concepts studied in other subject areas. 1. Give examples of the use of target-language vocabulary, phrases, proverbs, and symbols in other subject areas. 2. Relate content from other subject areas to topics discussed in the target-language class, such as current events or contributions of important individuals from countries where the target language is spoken

MFLI.10 The student will demonstrate understanding of the significance of culture through comparisons between the cultures studied and the cultures of the United States.1. Compare patterns of behavior and interaction found in the United States with those found in the cultures studied. 2. Demonstrate an awareness that social practices and personal interactions differ among cultures. 3. Demonstrate an awareness of unique elements of the student’s own culture.

MFLI.12 The student will explore situations in which to apply target-language skills and cultural knowledge beyond the classroom setting for recreational, educational, and occupational purposes. 1. Present examples of the target language and the cultures studied evident in and through media, entertainment, and technology. 2. Use resources, such as individuals and organizations in the community or accessible through the Internet, to gain information about the cultures studied.

Fine Arts

Dance

DM.12 The student will identify similarities and differences in dance styles from various cultures and historical periods

DI.12 The student will identify distinguishing features of various dance forms belonging to past and present world cultures, styles, periods, and artists.

DI.13 The student will identify, research, and discuss how dance reflects and records history and culture.

DI.23 The student will identify how the aesthetics of a culture influence dance arts.

Music

K.4, 1.3, 2.3, 3.4, 5.4 The student will respond to music with movement. 5. Perform dances and games from various cultures

3.11 The student will explore the music of world cultures through song, dance, and movement. 1. Study folk tales and musical settings of folk tales. 2. Listen to examples of instruments not traditionally found in bands or orchestras. 4. Perform traditional dances.

4.10, 5.9 The student will identify instruments from various music ensembles, including instruments from other cultures, using sight and sound.

5.11 The student will place music examples into broad categories of style 4. Identify notable characteristics of the music of world cultures.

MS.7 The student will describe performances, live or recorded, using music terminology. 2. Identify music of diverse cultures, including representative composers.

HS.5 The student will investigate the role of music in the human experience 1. Explore the development and function of music in diverse cultures throughout human history through oral and written traditions.

IB.21 The student will identify and analyze cultures, styles, composers, and historical periods from materials being studied.

II.14 The student will perform music from a variety of cultures, styles, and historical periods.

II.21 The student will identify and analyze cultures, styles, composers, and historical periods from materials being studied.

CB.11, CI.11 The student will study selections that represent various historical, stylistic, and cultural contexts of choral music. 1. Compare and contrast the functions of vocal/choral music in various cultures. 2. Identify distinguishing characteristics of representative choral music from a variety of cultures.

CI.13 The student will investigate the relationship of music to the other fine arts and to disciplines outside the arts. 1. Identify characteristics of various arts from a particular historical period and from various cultures, using common elements and characteristic terms.

Theater

TI.8 The student will reflect on life in historical times, places, and cultures by 1. researching and applying cultural and historical information to artistic choices; 2. examining non-Western traditions in drama

TII.9 The student will identify major stylistic movements and connections to historical periods, including classical, Renaissance, Elizabethan, modern, and contemporary, by 1. describing and comparing universal characters, situations, themes, and ideas in theatre; 2. identifying, researching, and analyzing symbolism and cultural and historical clues in dramatic texts; and 3. researching and describing historical production designs, techniques, and performances from various cultures

Visual Arts

K.13 The student will discuss the concept that people in all cultures create works of art.

2.13 The student will compare the art, artifacts, and architecture of other cultures with that of their own culture.

2.14 The student will identify symbols from various cultures.

2.15 The student will identify art from other cultures, including Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, and American Indians (First Americans).

2.22 The student will discuss the ways that the art of a culture reflects its people’s attitudes and beliefs.

3.13 The student will discuss how history, culture, and the visual arts influence each other.

3.17 The student will identify how works of art reflect times, places, and cultures.

3.18 The student will explain the role of archaeology in learning about the art of past cultures.

4.13 The student will recognize, compare, and contrast the characteristics of diverse cultures in contemporary works of art.

4.14 The student will identify and describe the influences of ancient cultures on Early American architecture.

5.7 The student will collaborate with others to produce a work of art that characterizes a historical time period.

5.8 The student will defend a position regarding a historical or contemporary issue through the production of a work of art.

5.9 The student will demonstrate an understanding of symbolic meanings by incorporating symbols in a work of art.

5.16 The student will produce fiber art that reflects the qualities of the fiber art of another age, culture, or country.

5.19 The student will identify the influences of historic events, subject matter, and media in works of art.

5.20 The student will research artists from a variety of cultures and the works of art they have produced.

5.22 The student will research, compare, and contrast the art of two cultures, using contemporary technology.

8.13 The student will identify and analyze art and architecture from various world cultures, periods, or civilizations by styles, symbolism, and technological impact.

8.14 The student will describe and place a variety of works in historical and cultural contexts.

AII.6 The student will use historical subject matter and symbols as inspiration to produce works of art.

AII.15 The student will identify and examine works of art in their historical context and relate them to historical events.

AII.16 The student will describe distinguishing features in works of art that may be used to differentiate among a variety of historical periods and cultural contexts.

AII.17 The student will examine and discuss societal conditions that influence works of art.